Rural tourism – a new direction in the tourism business.
Rural tourism (it is also called agri-tourism or “green”) is one of the trendy and rapidly developing napravleniu modern tourism. Received public recognition in most European countries in the second half of the last century, in Moldova this type of vacation is at an early stage of development.
But now it becomes clear that the holiday in the Moldavian village is of interest as the inhabitants of our country, and foreign citizens. The smell of fresh hay, fresh milk, pure air. That’s what sometimes lack the townspeople. Therefore rural tourism, which involves staying in the village, familiarity with the local culture and way of life, is a great alternative to traditional “beach” or the excursion tourism.
In most countries, tourism plays a significant role in the economy, promoting social development of regions, the flow of funds in the state Treasury. The tourism sector accounts for about 10 percent of the global gross national product, the world investments, all workplaces and world consumer expenses. Tourism development has stimulating influence on such sectors as transport, communications, trade, construction, agriculture, production of consumer goods, and is one of the most promising areas of economic restructuring.
Since the early 80-ies of XX century there has been a shift in the priorities of travelers. Instead of the hot sun, increasingly, a preference for shaded forest instead of urban communities – settlements of traditional peoples. It makes talking about the phenomenon of the so-called rural-ecological tourism is a special sector of the tourist region, which according to some estimates, covers over 10% of the tourist market, and its growth rate is 2-3 times higher than corresponding rates in all industry of tourism.
Rural tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry. According to the definition “ rural tourism is a form of tourism undertaken in the rural environment, based on the use of local tourism resources and aimed at oznokomlenie with local customs and traditions, Krestyansky, farm management, and the promotion of the welfare of the local population”. In other words, “rural tourism is a sustainable and nature-oriented tourism and recreation”. Sustainability in tourism means a positive balance of environmental, socio-cultural and economic impacts of tourism, as well as the positive impact of visitors on each other. Thus, the distinctive features of rural tourism are that it creates and satisfies the desire of man to communicate with nature, to visit and to spend a few days in the farm, operated features of the local cuisine. But one of the main conditions for rural tourism to prevent negative impact on ecology, culture and aesthetics. An important factor in this case is that we have to make tourism potential to serve for the benefit of nature and socio-economic development. In addition, the development of rural tourism contributes to improving ecological-educational and cultural level of both visitors and locals.
The development of rural tourism is a part of internal sources of investments for development of agricultural production and sustain life in rural areas, as the income generated from the provision of services to tourists, is an additional source to the main activity, and later can become a major.
Returning to the concept of rural tourism is not only a residence in a rural home, but also the functioning of the whole infrastructure of rural tourism, which includes good transport links between settlements, place of conduct of leisure services provide a variety of services to provide information and service, small restaurants, cafes, and restaurants. With each guest, and in rural tourism tourists are called guest should always feel the comfort of home, and increased personal attention.
Rural tourism has the potential to help Moldovan village and develop a positive image of our country, yet invisible in the global tourism market. However, such positive change is possible only if rural tourism will become a full sector of the tourism industry.
^ The concept of rural tourism and its role in the modern world.
Modern tourism industry is one of the largest highly remunerative and most dynamic sectors of the world economy. The main reasons for this are the constantly growing demand for travel and relatively high level of profitability of the industry.
In the last decades of the XX century there was a phenomenal two-scale trends. First — the incredibly fast growth in the number of travellers, resulting in tourism from a neglected sphere of economic activities has become one of the largest and most profitable industries in the world. The second is the dissemination of ideas of environmental protection, which have become very popular among the representatives of civilization, especially Western. The greening of consciousness is touched, of course, and tourists. As a result, the demand for tourism, an alternative to the mass –agriculture.
According to different statistics, rural-environmental travel is from 7 to 20% of the total trips. Their growth is huge — 30% per year. Moldova while the “terra incognito” on the world tourist map. There are several reasons. This underestimation of Moldova in the global tourism market as a tourist destination and in this regard, the lack of serious attention to tourism as a business. This and the lack of advertising. Finally, some disadvantaged traditional tourist resources — we are one of the countries of Europe, where there is neither sea nor mountains.
But in our country there is another. And what is especially appreciated now, untouched nature, beautiful pastoral rural landscapes and kind, hospitable people. Moldova is an ideal country for all types of travel: eco, rural, adventure, ethnographic.
In the world currently is turning active and mass tourism to a more peaceful and intimate modes of travel, particularly to rural areas. To replace the sun-sea-sand — and- coming landscape-tradition-leisure . And here in our Moldovan village has to offer — a lyrical rural landscapes, traditional rural lifestyle, organic food. You can learn to milk a cow, catch fish, weave baskets from vines, ride horses. You can pick mushrooms, berries, medicinal herbs and more. In other words, stay in a village or rural tourism.
Rural tourism is a very broad concept, generally accepted definition which is not given. From the point of view of geodemographic is tourism outside the city limits on the territory with low density of the urban population. From the point of view of the tourist product is a set of various services from the rural house, eco-tours, adventure hikes to directly participate in the life of the local population.
^ European experience of rural tourism development.
Rural tourism appeared in Europe in the early 70-ies of the last century. Country pioneers — Italy, Austria, France. Moldova is perhaps one of the last European States that acceded to this movement.
In those days there is an acute environmental problem in many large cities and people have a need in communication with nature, clean air, natural silence and natural foods.
Today this type of tourism is developing very rapidly and in some countries, delays on the part of the foreign tourist flow. As good examples are countries such as Italy, France and Ireland.
Initially, the Italian government assumed that the accommodation will be non-core activities of farmers, allowing some to strengthen their financial and economic position without the need for large investments.
Today, however, the demand for papaya tourism product has changed the very concept of rural tourism, which is converted to many rural residents not in the side, and the main activity.
To consider rural tourism as a sector of modern tourism industry became possible only recently when the use of new information technologies and methods of organization of the tourist business allowed to increase the volume of sold services in some European countries up to industrial scale. This is well illustrated by the examples of Austria (16% of the total number of rural tourists in the EU), Italy (13%), France (15%) and Spain (8%), where the level of organization, the tourism business can be considered as a dynamically growing sector of the modern tourism industry.
The European experience shows that the establishment of a structure that would unite like-minded people, accelerate the development of rural tourism. Therefore, farmers tend to unite into associations of rural tourism, whose task is to to be categorized rural tourist facilities depending on the level of services and to monitor their compliance with the requirements of the Association. These organizations also advise farmers who want to do rural tourism, development of corporate identity and public relations. To meet the needs of tourists, the housekeeping staff is lacking a lot and is constantly learning. This requires special professional seminars, where they will be trained the owners of estates to communicate with tourists, quality standards, Ethnography, marketing secrets.