Small business is a significant and complex phenomenon of socio-economic life of the city of Moscow. It is present in virtually all sectors of the economy. In the activities of malindretos involved all social groups of the Muscovites. The development of small business in the city is a strategic factor for sustainable development of the economy of the city, and on the contrary, coagulation of small businesses can have serious negative consequences, both economic and social nature. In these reasons, small business support is seen as one of the policy priorities of the government of Moscow, a decisive two-pronged socio-economic problem. The development of small entrepreneurship in the social aspect of this – employment and quality of life of Muscovites, providing residents with essential goods and services, the formation of a middle class and democratic institutions of civil society, the implementation of the city’s social programs. Economic effect from activity of small business is assessed from the point of view of its vkladov gross regional product, increase of quality and competitiveness of produced goods and services, the level of diversification of activity of subjects of small business, growth of the trade balance of the city with the RF regions and foreign countries, as well as contribution to the implementation of priority national projects in healthcare, education, housing and agriculture development. Increasing importance of small business in socio-economic development of the country puts on the agenda the question of recognition of his national project. The development of small business in Moscow carried out on the basis of program-target methods. In 2006, completing the implementation of the fifth of the city program of development and support of small business. Complex target program of development and support of small business in the city of Moscow on 2007 – 2009. 1.The concept of small business and its historical aspects.
1.1 Criteria for the selection of small businesses.
Mankind has accumulated enough experience distribution of enterprises into groups depending on their size. While there is no one for all universal criterion selections of small businesses. Each state depending on nationality, industrial grades, industrial culture economy sets its own criteria for the distribution of enterprise size.
For example, in France, very small enterprises are the production workforce of up to 10 employees, small 10 to 100, medium 100 to 500 major and more than 500 people. Small and medium enterprises account for about 99 per cent of all enterprises and employs approximately 67% of all employees.
In Japan, small and medium enterprises are legally independent companies with number of employees up to 300 people or amount of fixed capital to 100 million yen in manufacturing, construction, transport, communications, and utilities; up to 100 people (or 30 million yen of capital) in the wholesale trade and up to 50 people (or 10 million yen capital) in the retail trade and the service sector. Small and medium-sized companies make up more than 99% of their total number and they employ over 80% of all employees. In our country, according to the accepted July 14, 1995 the Federal law. On state support of small entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation, under the subjects of small business refers to commercial organizations, whose authorized capital the share of participation of the Russian Federation, of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, public and religious organisations, charity and other funds does not exceed 25%; the share attributable to one or several legal entities not being subjects of small business does not exceed 25% and where the number of employees during the reporting period does not exceed following marginal levels: in industry, construction and transport 100 people; in wholesale trade 50; in retail trade and sphere of household services, 30; in other industries and in the implementation of other activities 50. Thus, to determine a selection criterion for small businesses in employment. The imperfection of this criterion and other criteria, obviously.
Apparently universal criteria to define small enterprises, allowing error-free sort enterprise does not exist. Therefore, it seems appropriate, focusing precisely on the number of employees, to determine for each industry, taking into account the specifics of production, what enterprises cannot be attributed to a small. In case of disputes, resolve them individually.
1.2 the Concept of a small enterprise and small business.
Small businesses is not the legal form, the term “small” characterizes only the size of the enterprise and criteria of attribution of enterprises to small are the number of employees and the share of state and municipal property and property of public associations in the authorized capital of these enterprises, which must be no more than 25%. The number of employees in a small business is determined by the average number of the main production staff and employees working on contracts and part-time. Small businesses are businesses employing no more than 200 persons in industry, transport and building – up to 100 people. in science and scientific services, and agriculture – up to 60 persons, in wholesale trade – 50 in retail and consumer services – 30 and 50 employees in other production sectors, up to 15 people in the non-manufacturing sector.
1.3 Historical aspects of small business development.
From small businesses a new Russia is not too happy fate, even though over the last decade and a half was made many decisions aimed at support and development. For small enterprises in the GDP, according to estimates from Rosstat, in 2000 was 8.7%, the proportion working for them in the total number of the employed population was 12 %. As you know, this is an order of magnitude lower than in the European countries and the USA. Trying to answer the question. Why the development of domestic small business slips, stands along with other approaches to applied and historical.
The prototype of the modern enterprise can be considered as a trade and crafts flourished in Kievan Rus. The highest support for traders and merchants began to receive during the reign of Peter 1, when the whole country was created by the manufactory was developing rapidly mining, weapons, cloth, linen industry.
Cutting a “window to Europe” by Russian men, Peter shill in the country overseas masters on favorable terms, and its sent to a neighboring state for training. Trade-industrial policy carried out cruel: the Imperial decrees ordered the construction of new mills, the formation of companies appointment of the shareholders. Even Petrovskaya privatization – transferring state-owned factories in frequent hands held in the form of an order. So, in 1712, it was ordered the Treasury to start a cloth factory and give shopping people gathered company, “and Buda will not pochotal, although in captivity.
The most famous dynasty of entrepreneurs had a family of Demidovs (its founder Nikita Antufiev-Demidov was born in 1656). The whole post-reform period, the economy was in Nizhny Tagil one of the biggest mining districts of the Urals. The genus Demidovs 215 years owned Ural factories (1702-1917). Dynasty was famous because of its outstanding merits in development of domestic mining industry, enormous wealth, and public charity.
Serfdom negatively affect the development of entrepreneurship in General and small in particular. New opportunities for entrepreneurs opened after the reform of 1861 In 1895. in the mining district Demidovs were about 17 thousand people. Tagil plant produced 1 million 157 thousand pounds of cast iron, about 600 thousand pounds of steel and iron annually. Ruthless exploitation of people and low wages allowed Demidov to compete, increasing the production of rails and rail fixings, much needed in the construction of railroads, which began in the late nineteenth century.
A significant role in the development of Russian industry played by foreign capital rushed mainly into large-scale production.
With the abolition of serfdom began to form the labour market, joint-equity enterprise, banking sector, private joint-stock banks (commercial, land, etc.). characteristically, the beginning of XX century In the Russian economy, 2/3 of all industrial production was produced at the joint, mutual and other entities, that is dominated by collective forms of entrepreneurship. The trend toward monopolization of production contributed to the formation of the largest companies – “Prodmet”, “Prodvagon”, Produgol’. High profits bring investment in cotton production, trade, and credit. Small business moved along without any UPS and downs, that is natural.