The project approach in modern business iTeam
We will focus on only one topic: the Project approach in modern business , as all the subjects of project management organization is extremely extensive, to be covered in a not too lengthy article. Such a formulation allows to make the deliberations action-oriented and at the same time encourages a conceptual approach to problems whose solution has a significant impact on the development of project activities.
Features of project management.
The term project management refers to a relatively small range of subjects of technological character. However, such an interpretation significantly narrows the problem and allows to solve important practical questions.
Project business is used as a generic term to refer to business activities based on a project – oriented approach. This includes system integration, film and video, software development, insurance activities, organization of exhibitions, etc.
Electronization of business and Commerce requires a new approach to the problem of project management. In short, it is about that time from the management of the projects go to support project activities as an important component of the business.
Projectivization business. In modern business there are a number of global trends, allowing to speak about its projectivization , i.e. the increasing share and importance of activities related to osushestvleniya. The most important among them are.
the transition from regulation and to focus on coordination and distribution.
reduction in the life cycle of products and services, particularly the timing of development and launch.
personalization of demand and supply, products and services.
In General, we can talk about changing the paradigm (basic model) of the business: it begins to be regarded as a set of interrelated projects. This approach allows to adequately reflect another feature of modern business, when the main strategic competitive advantage is a flexible behavior in changing external environment. In such circumstances, the inevitable departure from rigid organizational structures and management technologies.
Especially brightly these tendencies manifest themselves in business related to the Internet. Moreover, we can say that it is this area that will serve as the main consumer of new information systems for project management.
The main conclusion is that in the near future we should expect changes in the approach to information systems design for business, taking into account its features, based on modern system architecture, highly scalable and affordable.
Peculiarities of project business. Now it is accepted to speak about the crisis of traditional ERP systems. However, it would be better to state the crisis of the common models of organization and business management, for the maintenance of which such system was created. With reference to project business problem becomes particularly acute due to some of its features.
knowledge of the nature of the subject area in most projects.
a small fraction of the projects of economic activities associated with tangible assets.
the strong dependence of the success of the projects from the external environment, especially the behavior of the customer.
increased risks, including the risk of violation of terms and budget, termination or suspension of the project, poor implementation.
increased requirements to quality, with design, i.e., the objectively verifiable nature.
a high degree of individualization for the customer and the importance of working closely with him.
high probability of occurrence of new, not previously performed work for which methodology, technology and management system are created on the fly.
high demands on the skills of managers and executives, their high cost.
the critical importance of corporate office systems that support communication and knowledge base.
the special nature of the budgeting, planning, control and accounting.
great unevenness in the flow of orders that hinder the management of human resources.
the geographical remoteness of the client.
the presence of several performers and their geographical distribution.
It should be noted the paramount importance of the project for business human resource problems (both managers and experts) in all its aspects.
Management of the project activities. The system of project management must meet the following basic requirements.
focus on support for decision-making, especially with regard to the use of resources and development of new products and services.
effective system of human resources management.
a flexible system of planning and accounting, allowing regular restructuring projects in accordance with changing conditions and outcomes.
developed office system (communication, knowledge base, back office.
effective support of distributed activities.
monitoring and support relationships with customers and partners.
Project-based approach to doing business.
Consider the conceptual practically oriented approaches to project way of doing business.
The challenge of the time. Projectivization modern business raises the question of modernization of traditional project management.
Classic strategic planning and classic project management have many similarities in the methodology, which is inventory in nature and involves a detailed painting of events and works for many years to come. Now the classical strategic planning is experiencing a serious crisis. The main reason is the insufficient consideration of the fundamental factor – the variability of the environment. Strategic plans are always drawn up on the assumption of the stationary nature of the environment with some regular trend. The question was only about the accuracy of prediction variance. But now on the first place there is the problem of creation of adaptive mechanisms at the strategic level, i.e. mechanisms for the early identification of opportunities/threats and their use of neutralization. Accordingly, changing the approach to investment analysis – the gradual abandonment of the smooth models in favor of models with variable structure.
Implementation of integrated ERP systems is a good example of a project that doesn’t quite fit into the traditional framework of the design approach. Indeed, before the beginning of works is often unclear what actually needs to be done in streamlining business processes and organizational changes. Therefore, detailed planning is only for the next stage the results of the previous in keeping with the changing realities of the external and internal environment. Thus, it is possible to speak about the projects are largely adaptive in essence.
Development projects e-business represent extreme examples of the projects implemented in the conditions of the maximum uncertainty of the external environment. It is noteworthy that even the proposed technology trade cannot be accurately evaluated in terms of their attractiveness to potential customers. In other words, the system projects e-business are totally adaptive where the decisions about the structure and composition of the project have to be revised several times a year. Everything else here added the factor of race in the face of brutal competition and fear of being late.
The project as a tool to create products. This is the most common type of projects. To order a certain alienated product that the customer uses at their discretion. Examples of such products include programs, design solutions, buildings, etc. Traditionally, particular attention was paid to technology design and, consequently, for systems such as CASE, CAD, etc.
A software firm operating in Russia, last year the state has increased from 50 to 250 people in connection with the growth of development to order. To improve performance, the firm has developed an integrated CASE-technology company Rational. According to calculations, this would reduce the time of creation of the software twice. In fact, the cycle of order fulfillment has not changed significantly. Moreover, I had to hire and train additional employees managers and business analysts, and third party organizations. This significantly increased the costs of maintenance, and in view of the geographical distribution of offices, teams and clients have problems of communications.
AvtoVAZ in the past dozen years has invested millions of dollars in automating design and technological works.
The largest Russian producer of missile technology believes that if he was given $ 50 million. for the purchase of integrated CAD/CAM system, such as that of Boeing Corporation , he would quickly become a world leader in its segment.
The project as a marketable product. The project can be considered as a separate market product that represents organizational-technological complex. In fact, it is that the customer developed the entire range of issues related to the implementation of the project.
Telecommunications company in Boston (USA) has received an order for the deployment of regionally integrated transmission system cost of about $ 300 million. The company hired a specialized consultancy firm that has developed an organizational structure, technology, and procedures work management, resources and quality, accounting, scheduling works etc, a consulting firm, the development of some automated system support project activities, and after the launch of the project took up support for it.